The electrical and optical properties of Er-implanted Si are shown to be critically dependent on the presence of impurities and defects. A large enhancement in the electrical activation of Er (up to three orders of magnitude) is obtained by coimplanting Er with O or C at 300 °C. The use of C also allows one to obtain a good quality crystal after implantation and annealing. This is shown to be crucial in the photoluminescence process. In fact, in spite of the large amount of active Er atoms, photoluminescence is inhibited in the presence of the high concentration of precipitates and crystallographic defects which are left after annealing of the Er and O coimplants. The photoluminescence intensity is, on the other hand, enhanced by the high concentration of active Er atoms in the defect-free crystal which is left after annealing of the Er and C coimplants. Moreover, a clear shift in the main photoluminescence peaks is observed in Er- and C-coimplanted samples as a result of the different surroundings experienced by the Er atoms. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics.
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