Adenoids removed for airway obstruction and-or recurrent infections have been studied to identify a possible mechanism to explain chronicity. In this regard, macrophages may play a relevant pathogenic role as well as neutrophils during bacterial infections and eosinophils in allergic inflammation. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating some mediators as surrogate markers of inflammation in children who had to undergo to adenoidectomy. Globally, 67 children (25 females, 42 males, mean age 4.9 years), affected by persistent obstruction caused by adenoid hypertrophy were consecutively enrolled into the study. Blood samples were collected from patients and controls to determine serum CD163, Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ECP. There were significant differences between patients and controls for serum CD163 (p less than 0.0001); MPO (p less than 0.0001); serum ECP (p less than 0.0001). This study demonstrated some risk factors for severe AH: apnoea, recurrent respiratory infections, and high serum CD163 levels.
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