OBJECTIVE: To review new scientific evidence to update the Italian guidelines for managing fever in children as drafted by the panel of the Italian Pediatric Society. STUDY DESIGN: Relevant publications in English and Italian were identified through search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from May 2012 to November 2015. RESULTS: Previous recommendations are substantially reaffirmed. Antipyretics should be administered with the purpose to control the child's discomfort. Antipyretics should be administered orally; rectal administration is discouraged except in the setting of vomiting. Combined use of paracetamol and ibuprofen is discouraged, considering risk and benefit. Antipyretics are not recommended preemptively to reduce the incidence of fever and local reactions in children undergoing vaccination, or in attempt to prevent febrile convulsions in children. Ibuprofen and paracetamol are not contraindicated in children who are febrile with asthma, with the exception of known cases of paracetamol- or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Recent medical literature leads to reaffirmation of previous recommendations for use of antipyretics in children who are febrile.
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