15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15-d-PGJ(2)) is a dehydration product of PGD(2). This compound possesses a highly reactive polyunsaturated carbonyl moiety that is a substrate for Michael addition with thiol-containing biomolecules such as glutathione and cysteine. residues on proteins. By reacting with glutathione and proteins, 15-d-PGJ(2) is believed to exert potent biological activity. Despite the large number of publications that have ascribed bioactivity to this molecule, it is not known to what extent 15-d-PGJ(2) is formed in vivo. Levels of free 15-d-PGJ(2) measured in human biological fluids such as urine are low, and the biological importance of this compound has thus been questioned. Because of its reactivity, we hypothesized that 15-d-PGJ(2) is present in vivo primarily as a Michael conjugate. Therefore, we undertook a detailed study of the metabolism of this compound in HepG2 cells that are known to metabolize other cyclopentenone eicosanoids. We report that HepG2 cells primarily convert 15-d-PGJ(2) to a glutathione conjugate in which the carbonyl at C-11 is reduced to a hydroxyl. Subsequently, the glutathione portion of the molecule is hydrolyzed with loss of glutamic acid and glycine resulting in a cysteine conjugate. These findings confirm a general route for the metabolism of cyclopentenone eicosanoids in HepG2 cells and may pave the way for new insights regarding the formation of 15-d-PGJ(2) in vivo.
BRUNOLDI, ENRICO;ZANONI, GIUSEPPE
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