Childhood asthma represents a heterogeneous challenging disease, in particular in its severe forms. The identification of different asthma phenotypes has stimulated research in underlying molecular mechanisms, such as the endotypes, and paved the way to the search for related specific biomarkers, which may guide diagnosis, management, and predict response to treatment. A limited number of biomarkers are currently available in clinical practice in the pediatric population, mostly reflecting type 2-high airway inflammation. The identification of biomarkers of childhood asthma is an active area of research that holds a potential great clinical utility and may represent a step forward toward tailored management and therapy: the so-called Precision Medicine. The aim of the present review is to provide an updated overview of asthma endotyping, mostly focusing on novel noninvasive biomarkers in childhood asthma.
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