This paper presents the comparison of five pressure-driven formulations in the context of water distribution network (WDN) modelling. These formulations, which relate nodal outflow q to users to demands d and nodal pressure heads h, were implemented inside the global gradient algorithm for the snapshot solution of the equations concerning mass and energy conservation at WDN nodes and pipes, respectively. The modelling of leakage nodal outflows as a function of pressure was also considered. The applications concerned two case studies, in which nodal demands were suitably amplified to lower service pressure below the desired values. This was done to stress the effects of the pressure-driven dependence q(h) in the WDN. The results showed that the formulations tend to behave similarly in terms of nodal outflows. Compared to a widely used formulation, which features a q(h) relationship with derivative discontinuities, the other four formulations analyzed tend to guarantee faster algorithm convergence, above all for simple and poorly interconnected WDNs, due to their smooth q(h) relationship. The results in terms of nodal pressure heads can be very different, above all for low values of h.
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