Despite the availability of many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (old and newly developed) and, as recently suggested, their optimization in the treatment of patients with uncontrolled seizures, more than 30% of patients with epilepsy continue to experience seizures and have drug-resistant epilepsy; the management of these patients represents a real challenge for epileptologists and researchers. Resective surgery with the best rates of seizure control is not an option for all of them; therefore, research and discovery of new methods of treating resistant epilepsy are of extreme importance. In this article, we will discuss some innovative approaches, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, gene therapy, stem cell therapy, traditional and novel antiepileptic devices, precision medicine, as well as therapeutic advances in epileptic encephalopathy in children; these treatment modalities open up new horizons for the treatment of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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