Quantum walks (QWs) describe the evolution of quantum systems on graphs. An intrinsic degree of freedom—called the coin and represented by a finite-dimensional Hilbert space—is associated with each node. Scalar quantum walks are QWs with a one-dimensional coin. We propose a general strategy allowing one to construct scalar QWs on a broad variety of graphs, which admit embedding in Eulidean spaces, thus having a direct geometric interpretation. After reviewing the technique that allows one to regroup cells of nodes into new nodes, transforming finite spatial blocks into internal degrees of freedom, we prove that no QW with a two-dimensional coin can be derived from an isotropic scalar QW in this way. Finally, we show that the Weyl and Dirac QWs can be derived from scalar QWs in spaces of dimension up to three, via our construction.
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