Similar to other types of waste, sewage sludge (SS) must be minimized, not only to respect the European Directive 2018/851 on waste, but also because the cost of sludge management is approximately 50% of the total running costs of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Usually, minimization technologies can involve sewage sludge production with three different strategies: (i) adopting a process in the water line that reduces the production of sludge; (ii) reducing the water content (dewatering processes) or (iii) reducing the fraction of volatile solids (stabilization). This review, based on more than 130 papers, aims to provide essential information on the process, such as the advantages, the drawbacks and the results of their application. Moreover, significant information on the technologies still under development is provided. Finally, this review reports a discussion on the impact of the application of the proposed processes in the sludge line on a WWTP with a capacity exceeding 100,000 population equivalent (PE).
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