Worldwide uncontrolled use of synthetic pyrethroids contaminates water and soil leading to health hazards. Cypermethrin (CYP), the most used pyrethroid, induces detrimental effects on adults and embryos at different stages of development of several vertebrate species. In Mammals, CYP-induced alterations have been previously described in adult somatic cells and in post-implantation embryos. It remains unknown whether CYP has effects during pre-implantation development. Studies to access pre-implantation embryo toxicity are complicated by the restricted number of blastocysts that may be obtained, either in vivo or in vitro. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an in vitro model study that overcomes these limitations, as millions of pluripotent cells are available to the analysis. Also, ESCs maintain the same pluripotency characteristics and differentiation capacity of the inner cell mass (ICM) present in the blastocyst, from which they derive. In this work, using mouse R1 ESCs, we studied CYP-induced cell death, ROS production, the activation of oxidative stress-related and detoxification responses and the population growth kinetics following 72 h exposure at the 0.3 mM LD50 dose. Also, the expression levels of pluripotency genes in exposed ESCs and of markers of the three germ layers after their differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs) were determined. Two apoptotic waves were observed at 12-24 h and at 72 h. The increase of ROS production, at 24 h until the end of the culture period, was accompanied by the induction, at 48 h, of redox-related Cat, Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1 and Gpx4 genes. Up-regulation of Cyp1b1, but not of Cyp1a1, phase I gene was detected at 72 h and induction of Nqo1, Gsta1 and Ugt1a6 phase II genes began at 24 h exposure. The results show that exposed R1 ESCs activate oxidative stress-related and detoxification responses, although not sufficient, during the culture period tested, to warrant recovery of the growth rate observed in untreated cells. Also, CYP exposure altered the expression of Oct-4 and Nanog pluripotency genes in ESCs and, when differentiated into EBs, the expression of Fgf5, Brachyury and Foxa2, early markers of the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm germ layers, respectively. NIH/3T3 cells, a differentiated cell line of embryonic origin, were used for comparison.

Chronic cypermethrin exposure alters mouse embryonic stem cell growth kinetics, induces Phase II detoxification response and affects pluripotency and differentiation gene expression

Rebuzzini P;Civello C;Nantia Akono E;Fassina L;Zuccotti M;Garagna S
2020-01-01

Abstract

Worldwide uncontrolled use of synthetic pyrethroids contaminates water and soil leading to health hazards. Cypermethrin (CYP), the most used pyrethroid, induces detrimental effects on adults and embryos at different stages of development of several vertebrate species. In Mammals, CYP-induced alterations have been previously described in adult somatic cells and in post-implantation embryos. It remains unknown whether CYP has effects during pre-implantation development. Studies to access pre-implantation embryo toxicity are complicated by the restricted number of blastocysts that may be obtained, either in vivo or in vitro. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an in vitro model study that overcomes these limitations, as millions of pluripotent cells are available to the analysis. Also, ESCs maintain the same pluripotency characteristics and differentiation capacity of the inner cell mass (ICM) present in the blastocyst, from which they derive. In this work, using mouse R1 ESCs, we studied CYP-induced cell death, ROS production, the activation of oxidative stress-related and detoxification responses and the population growth kinetics following 72 h exposure at the 0.3 mM LD50 dose. Also, the expression levels of pluripotency genes in exposed ESCs and of markers of the three germ layers after their differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs) were determined. Two apoptotic waves were observed at 12-24 h and at 72 h. The increase of ROS production, at 24 h until the end of the culture period, was accompanied by the induction, at 48 h, of redox-related Cat, Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1 and Gpx4 genes. Up-regulation of Cyp1b1, but not of Cyp1a1, phase I gene was detected at 72 h and induction of Nqo1, Gsta1 and Ugt1a6 phase II genes began at 24 h exposure. The results show that exposed R1 ESCs activate oxidative stress-related and detoxification responses, although not sufficient, during the culture period tested, to warrant recovery of the growth rate observed in untreated cells. Also, CYP exposure altered the expression of Oct-4 and Nanog pluripotency genes in ESCs and, when differentiated into EBs, the expression of Fgf5, Brachyury and Foxa2, early markers of the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm germ layers, respectively. NIH/3T3 cells, a differentiated cell line of embryonic origin, were used for comparison.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1323486
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