The climate of Europe has become more extreme in the last century. Exceptional summer heat waves (HWs), associated with lack of precipitation, are increasing in frequency and duration. The wild flora and vegetation are often negatively affected by such extreme weather events and their direct and indirect consequences. The most important effects of HWs on the European wild flora and vegetation are due to high temperatures and extreme drought stress, which affect plant physiology and metabolism, and in turn affect plant growth and reproduction with two main consequences: adaptation or extinction. The prediction of increasing occurrence and intensity of weather extremes implies further efforts for understanding their consequences on wild flora and vegetation in high sensitive ecosystems like high latitude (sub-arctic and arctic) and mountain areas.
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