Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with remodeling of neuronal circuitries within the enteric nervous system, occurring also at sites distant from the acute site of inflammation and underlying disturbed intestinal functions. Homeoproteins orthodenticle OTX1 and OTX2 are neuronal transcription factors participating to adaptation during inflammation and underlying tumor growth both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. In this study, we evaluated OTX1 and OTX2 expression in the rat small intestine and distal colon myenteric plexus after intrarectal dinitro-benzene sulfonic (DNBS) acid-induced colitis. Methods: OTX1 and OTX2 distribution was immunohistochemically investigated in longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus (LMMP)-whole mount preparations. mRNAs and protein levels of both OTX1 and OTX2 were evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in LMMPs. Results: DNBS-treatment induced major gross morphology and histological alterations in the distal colon, while the number of myenteric neurons was significantly reduced both in the small intestine and colon. mRNA levels of the inflammatory markers, TNFα, pro-IL1β, IL6, HIF1α and VEGFα and myeloperoxidase activity raised in both regions. In both small intestine and colon, an anti-OTX1 antibody labeled a small percentage of myenteric neurons, and prevalently enteric glial cells, as evidenced by co-staining with the glial marker S100β. OTX2 immunoreactivity was present only in myenteric neurons and was highly co-localized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Both in the small intestine and distal colon, the number of OTX1- and OTX2-immunoreactive myenteric neurons significantly increased after DNBS treatment. In these conditions, OTX1 immunostaining was highly superimposable with inducible nitric oxide synthase in both regions. OTX1 and OTX2 mRNA and protein levels significantly enhanced in LMMP preparations of both regions after DNBS treatment. Conclusions: These data suggest that colitis up-regulates OTX1 and OTX2 in myenteric plexus both on site and distantly from the injury, potentially participating to inflammatory-related myenteric ganglia remodeling processes involving nitrergic transmission.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.