Cardiac development in the human embryo is characterized by the interactions of several transcription and growth factors leading the heart from a primordial linear tube into a synchronous contractile four-chamber organ. Studies on cardiogenesis showed that cell proliferation, differentiation, fate specification and morphogenesis are spatiotemporally coordinated by cell-cell interactions and intracellular signalling cross-talks. In recent years, research has focused on a class of inter- and intra-cellular modulators called non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), transcribed from the noncoding portion of the DNA and involved in the proper formation of the heart. In this chapter, we will summarize the current state of the art on the roles of three major forms of ncRNAs [microRNAs (miRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs)] in orchestrating the four sequential phases of cardiac organogenesis.
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