Recent developments in endovascular radiological techniques and devices have rendered embolization a major therapeutic option prior to surgery in many renal vascular or neoplastic diseases. A 19-year-old female patient, with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in childhood, was admitted with severe anemia. Polycystic kidney disease in end-stage renal failure appeared four years before and the patient has been undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The patient’s medical history also included bilateral renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs). One year earlier, a unilateral endovascular embolization was performed to repair a bleeding aneurysm at the right renal upper pole. A second bilateral ruptured renal aneurysm was diagnosed at admission. To continue with peritoneal dialysis and prevent intrarenal hemorrhage and intraperitonal bleeding, an urgent bilateral renal AE was performed. Two months later she underwent a bilateral retroperitoneal nephrectomy. The posterior surgical approach, preserved the peritoneal surface area and adequate conditions to continue dialysis. At histology, bilateral AMLs were confirmed and a renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney was concurrently discovered. Non-She undergoes continuous peritoneal dialysis. Urgent selective renal AE represents a feasible treatment for bilateral AML bleeding. It is safe and feasible before performing nephrectomy in patients with end-stage renal failure.
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