Black phosphorus (BP) is a two-dimensional material potentially of great interest for applications in the fields of energy, sensing, and microelectronics. One of the most interesting methods to obtain BP is the conversion from red phosphorus (RP) by means of high-energy mechanochemical synthesis. To date, however, this synthesis process was not well characterized. In this work, starting from the mathematical model of energy transfer during the ball milling process, we investigate the effects on RP → BP conversion of three experimental parameters, the rotation speed, the milling time, and the weight ratio between the spheres and the milled material (BtPw ratio). The efficiency of the conversion process was verified by solid-state NMR, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Whereas the first two parameters have a minor importance, the BtPw ratio plays a primary role in the RP → BP conversion. Yields approaching 100% can be obtained also with short milling times (15 min) and adequate rotation speed (e.g., 500 r.p.m.), provided that the BtPw ratio >40:1 is used. These results confirm the energy sustainability of the mechanochemical synthesis approach.

Efficiency and Quality Issues in the Production of Black Phosphorus by Mechanochemical Synthesis: A Multi-Technique Approach

Ferrara C.;Vigo E.;Albini B.;Galinetto P.;Milanese C.;Tealdi C.;Quartarone E.;Passerini S.;Mustarelli P.
2019

Abstract

Black phosphorus (BP) is a two-dimensional material potentially of great interest for applications in the fields of energy, sensing, and microelectronics. One of the most interesting methods to obtain BP is the conversion from red phosphorus (RP) by means of high-energy mechanochemical synthesis. To date, however, this synthesis process was not well characterized. In this work, starting from the mathematical model of energy transfer during the ball milling process, we investigate the effects on RP → BP conversion of three experimental parameters, the rotation speed, the milling time, and the weight ratio between the spheres and the milled material (BtPw ratio). The efficiency of the conversion process was verified by solid-state NMR, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Whereas the first two parameters have a minor importance, the BtPw ratio plays a primary role in the RP → BP conversion. Yields approaching 100% can be obtained also with short milling times (15 min) and adequate rotation speed (e.g., 500 r.p.m.), provided that the BtPw ratio >40:1 is used. These results confirm the energy sustainability of the mechanochemical synthesis approach.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11571/1351306
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