Two distinct forms of synaptic plasticity have been described at corticostriatal synapses: long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP). Both these enduring changes in the efficacy of excitatory neurotransmission in the striatum have a major impact on the physiological activity of the basal ganglia and are triggered by the stimulation of complex and independent cascades of intracellular second messenger systems. Along with the massive glutamatergic inputs originating from the cortex, striatal neurons receive a myriad of other synaptic contacts arising from different sources. In particular, while the nigrostriatal pathway provides this brain area with dopamine (DA), intrinsic circuits are the main source of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitric oxide (NO). The three neurotransmitter systems interact with each other to determine whether corticostriatal LTP or LTD is triggered in response to repetitive synaptic stimulation. Two distinct subtypes of striatal interneurons produce ACh and NO in the striatum. These interneurons are activated by the cortex during the induction phase of striatal plasticity, and stimulate, in turn, the intracellular changes in projection neurons required for LTD or LTP. Interneurons, therefore, exert a feedforward control of the excitability of striatal projection neurons by ensuring the coordinate expression of two alternative forms of synaptic plasticity at the same type of excitatory synapse. The integrative action exerted by striatal projection neurons on the converging information arising from the cortex, nigral DA neurons, and from ACh- and NO-producing interneurons dictates the final output of the striatum to the other structures of the basal ganglia.

Dopamine, acetylcholine and nitric oxide systems interact to induce corticostriatal synaptic plasticity

PISANI, ANTONIO;
2003

Abstract

Two distinct forms of synaptic plasticity have been described at corticostriatal synapses: long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP). Both these enduring changes in the efficacy of excitatory neurotransmission in the striatum have a major impact on the physiological activity of the basal ganglia and are triggered by the stimulation of complex and independent cascades of intracellular second messenger systems. Along with the massive glutamatergic inputs originating from the cortex, striatal neurons receive a myriad of other synaptic contacts arising from different sources. In particular, while the nigrostriatal pathway provides this brain area with dopamine (DA), intrinsic circuits are the main source of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitric oxide (NO). The three neurotransmitter systems interact with each other to determine whether corticostriatal LTP or LTD is triggered in response to repetitive synaptic stimulation. Two distinct subtypes of striatal interneurons produce ACh and NO in the striatum. These interneurons are activated by the cortex during the induction phase of striatal plasticity, and stimulate, in turn, the intracellular changes in projection neurons required for LTD or LTP. Interneurons, therefore, exert a feedforward control of the excitability of striatal projection neurons by ensuring the coordinate expression of two alternative forms of synaptic plasticity at the same type of excitatory synapse. The integrative action exerted by striatal projection neurons on the converging information arising from the cortex, nigral DA neurons, and from ACh- and NO-producing interneurons dictates the final output of the striatum to the other structures of the basal ganglia.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1355714
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