This Special Issue aims to examine the crucial role of nutritional status starting from pregnancy in modulating fetal, neonatal and infant growth and metabolic pathways, with potential long-term impacts on adult health. Poor maternal nutritional conditions in the earliest stages of life during fetal development and early life may induce both short-term and longer lasting eects; in particular, an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and other chronic diseases such as obesity, which itself is a major risk factor for NCDs, is observed over the lifespan. Poor maternal nutrition aects the fetal developmental schedule, leading to irreversible changes and slowdown in growth. The fetus limits its size to conserve the little energy available for cardiac functions and neuronal development. The organism will retain memory of the early insult, and the adaptive response will result in pathology later on. Epigenetics may contribute to disease manifestation aecting developmental programming. After birth, even though there is a limited evidence base suggesting a relationship between breastfeeding, timing and type of foods used in weaning with disease later in life, nutritional surveillance is also mandatory in infants in the first year of life. We will explore the latest findings on nutrition in early life and term and preterm babies, as well as the role of malnutrition in the short- and long-term impact over the lifespan. Focusing on nutritional interventions represents part of an integrated life-cycle approach to prevent communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Nutritional surveillance for the best start in life, promoting health for neonates, infants and children

Valeria Calcaterra
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Hellas Cena
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
2020

Abstract

This Special Issue aims to examine the crucial role of nutritional status starting from pregnancy in modulating fetal, neonatal and infant growth and metabolic pathways, with potential long-term impacts on adult health. Poor maternal nutritional conditions in the earliest stages of life during fetal development and early life may induce both short-term and longer lasting eects; in particular, an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and other chronic diseases such as obesity, which itself is a major risk factor for NCDs, is observed over the lifespan. Poor maternal nutrition aects the fetal developmental schedule, leading to irreversible changes and slowdown in growth. The fetus limits its size to conserve the little energy available for cardiac functions and neuronal development. The organism will retain memory of the early insult, and the adaptive response will result in pathology later on. Epigenetics may contribute to disease manifestation aecting developmental programming. After birth, even though there is a limited evidence base suggesting a relationship between breastfeeding, timing and type of foods used in weaning with disease later in life, nutritional surveillance is also mandatory in infants in the first year of life. We will explore the latest findings on nutrition in early life and term and preterm babies, as well as the role of malnutrition in the short- and long-term impact over the lifespan. Focusing on nutritional interventions represents part of an integrated life-cycle approach to prevent communicable and non-communicable diseases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11571/1364814
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