Purpose: Graves’ disease (GD) can present as an isolated disease (iGD) or in association with other autoimmune diseases (aGD). The aim of this study, performed in two Endocrine referral centers settled in different geographical areas of Italy, was to compare the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical phenotype of iGD patients with that of the aGD ones. Methods: Clinical history, physical examination data, serum levels of TSH, FT4, FT3, thyroglobulin (TgAb), thyroid-peroxidase (TPOAb) and TSH-receptor (TRAb) antibody, presence of Graves’ orbitopathy (GO), and thyroid ultrasound examination at disease diagnosis were recorded. Results: 68 aGD and 136 iGD patients were consecutively recruited. At diagnosis, aGD and iGD patients did not differ for F/M ratio, age at presentation, thyroid function parameters, serum levels of TRAb, TgAb, TPOAb, presence of GO, and thyroid volume. The serum levels of TRAb were strongly correlated with the circulating concentrations of both FT3 (ρ = 0.667; p < 0.0001) and FT4 (ρ = 0.628; p < 0.001) in iGD patient, but not in the aGD ones (FT3: ρ = 0.231; p = 0.058; FT4: ρ = 0.096; p = 0.435). Compared with iGD patients, the aGD ones displayed a higher rate of transition from the previous hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism (χ2 = 6.375; p = 0.012). Conclusion: Despite similar anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical features at diagnosis, aGD patients display a higher rate of transition from a thyroid functional status to the other as compared with iGD patients.
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