Background: Although clopidogrel is still frequently used in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), its efficacy is hampered by interpatient response variability caused by genetic polymorphisms associated with clopidogrel's metabolism. Objectives: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether selecting antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor) on the basis of a patient's genetic and clinical characteristics leads to better clinical outcomes compared with the standard of care, which bases the selection on clinical characteristics alone. Methods: Patients hospitalized for ACS were randomly assigned to standard of care or the pharmacogenomic arm, which included the genotyping of ABCB1, CYP2C19*2, and CYP2C19*17 using an ST Q3 system that provides data within 70 min at each patient's bedside. The patients were followed up for 12 ± 1 month for the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death and the first occurrence of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and major bleeding defined according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 to 5 criteria. Results: After enrolling 888 patients, the study was prematurely stopped. Clopidogrel was used more frequently in the standard-of-care arm (50.7% vs. 43.3%), ticagrelor in the pharmacogenomic arm (42.6% vs. 32.7%; p = 0.02), and prasugrel was equally used in both arms. The primary endpoint occurred in 71 patients (15.9%) in the pharmacogenomic arm and in 114 (25.9%) in the standard-of-care arm (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 0.78; p < 0.001). Conclusions: A personalized approach to selecting antiplatelet therapy for patients with ACS may reduce ischemic and bleeding events. (Pharmacogenetics of Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes [PHARMCLO]; NCT03347435)
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