Background: Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the treatment of choice for end stage renal disease. LDKT involves complex psychosocial issues, which remain partially unexplored. Methods: The study involved all potential living donors and recipient pairs consecutively referred for psychosocial evaluation from the nephrologist. Clinical and sociodemographic variables including prior psychiatric history, previous and current use of psychopharmacological therapy, motivation and information about the transplant procedure were collected. Study participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to assess psychopathological distress. Results: Fifty-three donor/recipient pairs underwent psychiatric and psychological evaluation. Seven subjects (13%) in the recipient group and 13 subjects (25%) in the donor group reported a history of psychological distress and/or psychiatric conditions. A psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed in 4 recipients (7.5% of the study sample, including autism spectrum disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and anxiety-depressive disorders) and 5 donors (9%, including narcissistic personality disorder in one case and anxiety-depressive disorders). SCL-90-R GSI mean scores were 0.3 ±0.3 and 0.2 ±0.2 for the recipient and donor groups, respectively. Overall, 8 couples (15%) suspended the living donation pathway before transplantation. Four couples were excluded for a new onset medical condition. The psychological and psychiatric evaluation excluded one candidate. One couple dropped out before completing the scheduled exams. One recipient refused to undergo crossover renal transplantation, while 1 donor candidate withdrew her consent for transplantation at the end of the evaluation process. Conclusions: Limited but significant psychopathological distress in donors and recipients supports the usefulness of psychiatric and psychological competencies within the transplant team.
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