The increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in elderly patients recognizes, as main cause, the long-term exposure to atherosclerosis and hypertension. Chronic ischemic damage due to critical renal arterial stenosis induces oxidative stress and intra-renal inflammation, resulting in fibrosis and microvascular remodelling, that is the histological picture of atherosclerotic renal vascular disease (ARVD). The concomitant presence of a long history of hypertension may generate intimal thickening and luminal narrowing of renal arteries and arterioles, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, more typically expression of hypertensive nephropathy. These complex mechanisms contribute to the development of CKD and the progression to End Stage Kidney Disease. In elderly CKD patients, the distinction among these nephropathies may be problematic; therefore, ischemic and hypertensive nephropathies can be joined in a unique clinical syndrome defined as atherosclerotic nephropathy. The availability of novel diagnostic procedures, such as intra-vascular ultrasound and BOLD-MRI, in addition to traditional imaging, have opened new scenarios, because these tools allow to identify ischemic lesions responsive to renal revascularization. Indeed, although trials have deflated the role of renal revascularization on the renal outcomes, it should be still used to avoid dialysis initiation and/or to reduce blood pressure in selected elderly patients at high risk. Nonetheless, lifestyle modifications (smoking cessation, increased physical activity), statins and antiplatelet use, as well as cautious use of renin–angiotensin system inhibitors, remain the main therapeutic approach aimed at slowing the renal damage progression. Mesenchymal stem cells and Micro-RNA are promising target of anti-fibrotic therapy, which might provide potential benefit in ARVD patients, though safety and efficacy profile in humans is unknown too.

Atherosclerotic-nephropathy: an updated narrative review

Simeoni M.;Esposito C.;Comi A.;Provenzano M.
2021-01-01

Abstract

The increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in elderly patients recognizes, as main cause, the long-term exposure to atherosclerosis and hypertension. Chronic ischemic damage due to critical renal arterial stenosis induces oxidative stress and intra-renal inflammation, resulting in fibrosis and microvascular remodelling, that is the histological picture of atherosclerotic renal vascular disease (ARVD). The concomitant presence of a long history of hypertension may generate intimal thickening and luminal narrowing of renal arteries and arterioles, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, more typically expression of hypertensive nephropathy. These complex mechanisms contribute to the development of CKD and the progression to End Stage Kidney Disease. In elderly CKD patients, the distinction among these nephropathies may be problematic; therefore, ischemic and hypertensive nephropathies can be joined in a unique clinical syndrome defined as atherosclerotic nephropathy. The availability of novel diagnostic procedures, such as intra-vascular ultrasound and BOLD-MRI, in addition to traditional imaging, have opened new scenarios, because these tools allow to identify ischemic lesions responsive to renal revascularization. Indeed, although trials have deflated the role of renal revascularization on the renal outcomes, it should be still used to avoid dialysis initiation and/or to reduce blood pressure in selected elderly patients at high risk. Nonetheless, lifestyle modifications (smoking cessation, increased physical activity), statins and antiplatelet use, as well as cautious use of renin–angiotensin system inhibitors, remain the main therapeutic approach aimed at slowing the renal damage progression. Mesenchymal stem cells and Micro-RNA are promising target of anti-fibrotic therapy, which might provide potential benefit in ARVD patients, though safety and efficacy profile in humans is unknown too.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1444021
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