The human right ventricle is barely monitored during open-chest surgery due to the absence of intraoperative imaging techniques capable of elaborating its complex function. Accordingly, artificial intelligence could not be adopted for this specific task. We recently proposed a video-based approach for the real-time evaluation of the epicardial kinematics to support medical decisions. Here, we employed two supervised machine learning algorithms based on our technique to predict the patients’ outcomes before chest closure. Videos of the beating hearts were acquired before and after pulmonary valve replacement in twelve Tetralogy of Fallot patients and recordings were properly labeled as the “unhealthy” and “healthy” classes. We extracted frequency-domain-related features to train different supervised machine learning models and selected their best characteristics via 10-fold cross-validation and optimization processes. Decision surfaces were built to classify two additional patients having good and unfavorable clinical outcomes. The k-nearest neighbors and support vector machine showed the highest prediction accuracy; the patients’ class was identified with a true positive rate ≥95% and the decision surfaces correctly classified the additional patients in the “healthy” (good outcome) or “unhealthy” (unfavorable outcome) classes. We demonstrated that classifiers employed with our video-based technique may aid cardiac surgeons in decision making before chest closure.
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