Background: We evaluated the rates of placental pathologic lesions and their relationship with two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Methods: This is a cohort observational study comprising 595 VLBW infants during 2007 to 2015. Neurodevelopmental assessment was carried out at 24 months corrected age. Results: In univariate analysis the rates of survival with normal neurodevelopmental outcomes were lower in pregnancies with severe histologic chorioamnionitis (38 of 43, 88.4% when compared with 305 of 450, 67.8%), severe maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) (17 of 37, 45.9% when compared with 326/492, 66.3%), and intravillous hemorrhage (37 of 82, 45.1% when compared with 306 of 449, 68.1%). In logistic models, severe MVM (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22 to 0.92), severe fetal vascular malperfusion (FVM) (adj. OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.45), and intravillous hemorrhage (adj. OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.62) were associated with lower rates of infant survival with normal neurodevelopmental outcome. FVM (adj. OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.97) and intravillous hemorrhage (adj. OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.62) were also the only placental lesions that were independent predictors of a lower rate of intact survival in stepwise analysis for prognostic factors of the entire cohort. Conclusions: Placental pathologic findings such as severe MVM, FVM, and intravillous hemorrhage are significant predictors of neonatal survival and subsequent adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Data on the placental pathology could be useful in the neurodevelopmental follow-up of VLBW infants.
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