During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation, semi-lockdown, and "stay at home" orders were imposed upon the population in the interest of infection control. This dramatically changes the daily routine of children and adolescents, with a large impact on lifestyle and wellbeing. Children with obesity have been shown to be at a higher risk of negative lifestyle changes and weight gain during lockdown. Obesity and COVID-19 negatively affect children and adolescents' wellbeing, with adverse effects on psychophysical health, due in large part to food choices, snacking between meals, and comfort eating. Moreover, a markable decrease in physical activity levels and an increase in sedentary behavior is associated with weight gain, especially in children with excessive weight. In addition, obesity is the most common comorbidity in severe cases of COVID-19, suggesting that immune dysregulation, metabolic unbalance, inadequate nutritional status, and dysbiosis are key factors in the complex mechanistic and clinical interplay between obesity and COVID-19. This narrative review aims to describe the most up-to-date evidence on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, focusing on the role of excessive weight and weight gain in pediatrics. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us that nutrition education interventions, access to healthy food, as well as family nutrition counselling should be covered by pediatric services to prevent obesity, which worsens disease outcomes related to COVID-19 infection.
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