Objective: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an LDL-like particle constituted by lipids, apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein (a) [apo(a)], a multidomain glycoprotein whose molecular mass is dependent on the genetically encoded number of Kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) repeats. Because Lp(a) isoforms have been associated with cardiovascular risk (CVR), we have investigated if their interfacial properties can contribute to distinguish between low and high-risk groups and thus be used as a new CVR indicator. Methods: Four Lp(a) variants, each carrying a different apo(a) isoform (K20, K24, K25, and K29), were purified from plasma of homozygous donors and their interfacial properties characterized using ellipsometry and surface pressure techniques. Results: Ellipsometry measurements revealed that these isoforms had a similar propensity to form adsorbed layers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces, but surface pressure enabled to clearly separate them into two groups: K20 and K24 on one side, and K25 and K29 on the other side. Conclusion: Though K24 and K25 differ only by a single KIV-2 domain, their sharp difference in surface pressure suggests a critical threshold between the two Lp(a) forms, providing insights into the use of condensed matter approaches to monitor CVR. Our findings may represent a new laboratory window to assist medical decisions and to develop precision medicine treatments, practices, and products for CVR, which can be extended to other cardiovascular disease conditions.
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