The feasibility of transforming the residues of cultivation of two rocks into secondary raw materials through the alkali activation process has been assessed. Mixtures of a sulfate-bearing kaolinitic clay (L02-K) and a sludge derived by the sewing of Pietra Serena stone (sPS) have been investigated. These materials were preliminarily treated at high temperature to improve their reactivity (heat-treated samples are hereafter labelled as L02-MK and sPS-800). Pastes were prepared with mixtures of L02-MK and sPS-800 in different weight proportions by using 8 M NaOH solutions as alkaline activator and cured at 85 °C for 24 h. Mechanical strength was determined after 1, 7 and 28 days and the reaction products were characterized by XPRD, SEM/EDX and MAS-NMR. Sulfate solubility was quantified by leaching tests. The alkali activation of the sole sulfate-bearing clay gives a material with developed mechanical strength of 4(1) MPa. Some N-A-S-H gel forms together with gibbsite and thenardite, which can be easily leached. Better results are obtained by the activation of mixtures of the two precursors, and mixed alkali cements or hybrid cements are obtained. The presence of CaO from heat-treated Pietra Serena sludge improves the mechanical strength of the resulting pastes up to 11.8(9) MPa. In this case, a mixture of gels forms, specifically, a calcium-rich gel (C-A-S-H-type) co-exists with (N,C)-A-S-H-type gel. U-phase and CAN-type zeolites also form. They trap sulfate from the clay and considerably reduce sulfate solubility. In conclusion, L02-MK and sPS-800 are promising raw materials for alkaline cements, whose properties may suggest application in soil stabilization or in waste confinement.

Sulfate-bearing clay and Pietra Serena sludge: Raw materials for the development of alkali activated binders

Occhipinti, Roberta;Tarantino, Serena C.
;
Zema, Michele
2021

Abstract

The feasibility of transforming the residues of cultivation of two rocks into secondary raw materials through the alkali activation process has been assessed. Mixtures of a sulfate-bearing kaolinitic clay (L02-K) and a sludge derived by the sewing of Pietra Serena stone (sPS) have been investigated. These materials were preliminarily treated at high temperature to improve their reactivity (heat-treated samples are hereafter labelled as L02-MK and sPS-800). Pastes were prepared with mixtures of L02-MK and sPS-800 in different weight proportions by using 8 M NaOH solutions as alkaline activator and cured at 85 °C for 24 h. Mechanical strength was determined after 1, 7 and 28 days and the reaction products were characterized by XPRD, SEM/EDX and MAS-NMR. Sulfate solubility was quantified by leaching tests. The alkali activation of the sole sulfate-bearing clay gives a material with developed mechanical strength of 4(1) MPa. Some N-A-S-H gel forms together with gibbsite and thenardite, which can be easily leached. Better results are obtained by the activation of mixtures of the two precursors, and mixed alkali cements or hybrid cements are obtained. The presence of CaO from heat-treated Pietra Serena sludge improves the mechanical strength of the resulting pastes up to 11.8(9) MPa. In this case, a mixture of gels forms, specifically, a calcium-rich gel (C-A-S-H-type) co-exists with (N,C)-A-S-H-type gel. U-phase and CAN-type zeolites also form. They trap sulfate from the clay and considerably reduce sulfate solubility. In conclusion, L02-MK and sPS-800 are promising raw materials for alkaline cements, whose properties may suggest application in soil stabilization or in waste confinement.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11571/1450117
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