It has been suggested that activation of estrogen receptor α (ER α) stimulates cell pro-liferation. In contrast, estrogen receptor β (ER β) has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity. Although the role of estrogens in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer progression has been well established, the mechanism of their effect on apoptosis is not fully understood. It has been considered that ER status of breast cancer cells and estrogen availability might determine proline dehydro-genase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX)-dependent apoptosis. PRODH/POX is a mitochondrial enzyme that converts proline into pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). During this process, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) or ROS (reactive oxygen species) are produced, facilitating cell survival or death, respectively. However, the critical factor in driving PRODH/POX-dependent functions is proline availability. The amount of this amino acid is regulated at the level of prolidase (proline releasing enzyme), collagen biosynthesis (proline utilizing process), and glutamine, glutamate, α-ketoglutarate, and ornithine metabolism. Estrogens were found to upregulate prolidase activity and collagen biosynthesis. It seems that in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, prolidase supports proline for collagen biosynthesis, limiting its availability for PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, lack of free proline (known to upregulate the transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HIF-1) contributes to downregulation of HIF-1-dependent pro-survival activity. The complex regulatory mechanism also involves PRODH/POX expression and activity. It is induced transcriptionally by p53 and post-transcriptionally by AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), which is regulated by ERs. The review also discusses the role of interconversion of proline/glutamate/ornithine in sup-porting proline to PRODH/POX-dependent functions. The data suggest that PRODH/POX-induced apoptosis is dependent on ER status in breast cancer cells.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.