Allergic disorders target a young population, are increasing in both incidence and prevalence and are associated with significant disease burden. They result from the complex interplay between (epi)genetic and environmental factors, resulting in a Th2 inflammatory process targeting the epithelium of the respiratory tract (allergic rhinitis and asthma), skin (atopic dermatitis), and gastrointestinal tract (food allergy). Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms remain elusive, an altered immune system response in the gut is increasingly recognized as a relevant step. Allergic and gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders share several epidemiological, pathogenic and risk factors and several treatment modalities. Here we revise the current literature and show that allergic disorders are highly prevalent in gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases, including celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune pancreatitis, and autoimmune cholangiopathies. No data are available for some autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune gastritis and autoimmune enteropathy. To ensure the comprehensive care of patients with autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders, along with disease-specific factors, the presence of allergic disorders should be evaluated and treated when present, possibly targeting shared molecular pathways. Future studies are needed to define the exact pathogenic mechanisms underpinning the association between allergic and autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Allergic manifestations in autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders

Lenti M. V.;Merli S.;Santacroce G.;Di Sabatino A.
2022

Abstract

Allergic disorders target a young population, are increasing in both incidence and prevalence and are associated with significant disease burden. They result from the complex interplay between (epi)genetic and environmental factors, resulting in a Th2 inflammatory process targeting the epithelium of the respiratory tract (allergic rhinitis and asthma), skin (atopic dermatitis), and gastrointestinal tract (food allergy). Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms remain elusive, an altered immune system response in the gut is increasingly recognized as a relevant step. Allergic and gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders share several epidemiological, pathogenic and risk factors and several treatment modalities. Here we revise the current literature and show that allergic disorders are highly prevalent in gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases, including celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune pancreatitis, and autoimmune cholangiopathies. No data are available for some autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune gastritis and autoimmune enteropathy. To ensure the comprehensive care of patients with autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders, along with disease-specific factors, the presence of allergic disorders should be evaluated and treated when present, possibly targeting shared molecular pathways. Future studies are needed to define the exact pathogenic mechanisms underpinning the association between allergic and autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1450433
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