Aims: The present study aimed to assess the ability of bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) in discriminating fitness levels in futsal players, exploring the association of body composition and bioelectrical parameters with aerobic power. Methods: Forty-eight professional futsal players (age 23.8 ± 5.3 years) were involved in a cross-sectional study during their pre-season phase. Fat mass (FM) and muscle mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. VO2max was obtained by indirect calorimetry through a graded exercise test performed on a treadmill. Bioelectrical resistance (R), reactance (Xc), and phase angle (PhA) were directly measured using a foot-to-hand bioimpedance technology at a 50 kHz frequency. Bioelectric R and Xc were standardized for the participants’ height and used to plot the bioimpedance vector in the R-Xc graph according to the BIVA approach. Results: The participants divided into groups of VO2max limited by tertiles showed significant differences in mean vector position in the R-Xc graph (p < 0.001), where a higher VO2max resulted in a longer vector and upper positioning. FM, muscle mass, and PhA differed (p < 0.01) among the athletes grouped by tertiles of VO2max, where athletes with a greater aerobic power showed a lower percentage of FM and a higher percentage of muscle mass and PhA. FM and PhA were associated with VO2max (FM: r = −0.658, p < 0.001; PhA: r = 0.493, p < 0.001). These relationships remained significant after adjusting for age and body mass (FM: ß = −0.335, p = 0.046; PhA: ß = 0.351, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Bioelectrical impedance vectors positioned on the lower pole of the R-Xc graph identified futsal players with a lower VO2max, while longer vectors corresponded to a greater aerobic power. Additionally, PhA, that describes the vector direction, was positively associated with VO2max, while a higher FM negatively affected VO2max in the futsal players. BIVA and PhA evaluation may represent a valid support for screening the aerobic fitness level in professional futsal players, when more sophisticated assessment methods are not available.
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