Purpose This review aimed to assess the effects of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on mental health to elite athletes. The emotional background influenced their sport career and was examined by questionnaires. Methods We included original studies that investigated psychological outcomes in elite athletes during COVID-19 lockdown. Sixteen original studies (n = 4475 participants) were analyzed. Results The findings showed that COVID-19 has an impact on elite athletes' mental health and was linked with stress, anxiety and psychological distress. The magnitude of the impact was associated with athletes' mood state profile, personality and resilience capacity. Conclusion The lockdown period impacted also elite athletes' mental health and training routines with augmented anxiety but with fewer consequences than the general population thanks to adequate emotion regulation and coping strategies.
Carnevale Pellino, Vittoria
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