Childhood obesity is a leading public health problem worldwide, as it is increasingly prevalent and therefore responsible for serious obesity-related comorbidities, not only in childhood but also in adulthood. In addition to cardio-metabolic obesity-related disorders, recent evidence suggests that excess adipose tissue in turn is associated with immune cell infiltration, increased adipokine release, and the development of low-grade systemic inflammation obesity. Exercise is considered a non-pharmacological intervention that can delay obesity-related comorbidities, improving cardiovascular fitness and modulating the inflammatory processes. It has been reported that the anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise may be mediated by a reduction in visceral fat mass, with a subsequent decrease in the release of adipokines from adipose tissue (AT) and/or by the induction of an anti-inflammatory environment. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of AT as an endocrine organ associated with chronic inflammation and its role in obesity-related complications, focusing on the effect of exercise in reducing inflammation in children and adolescents with obesity. Regular physical exercise must be considered as a natural part of a healthy lifestyle, and promoting physical activity starting from childhood is useful to limit the negative effects of obesity on health. The crucial role of the immune system in the development of obesity-induced inflammatory processes and the efficacy of exercise as an anti-inflammatory, non-pharmacological intervention may provide possible targets for the development of new treatments and early preventive strategies.
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