A search for chargino-neutralino pair production in three-lepton final states with missing transverse momentum is presented. The study is based on a dataset of root s = 13 TeV pp collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb(-1). No significant excess relative to the Standard Model predictions is found in data. The results are interpreted in simplified models of supersymmetry, and statistically combined with results from a previous ATLAS search for compressed spectra in two-lepton final states. Various scenarios for the production and decay of charginos ((chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)) and neutralinos ((chi) over tilde (0)(2)) are considered. For pure higgsino (chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)(chi) over tilde (0)(2) pair-production scenarios, exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are set on (chi) over tilde (0)(2) masses up to 210 GeV. Limits are also set for pure wino (chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)(chi) over tilde (0)(2) pair production, on (chi) over tilde (0)(2) masses up to 640 GeV for decays via on-shell W and Z bosons, up to 300 GeV for decays via off-shell W and Z bosons, and up to 190 GeV for decays via W and Standard Model Higgs bosons.