Psychosocial interventions are recommended in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis/early psychosis (EP). Nevertheless, literature is heterogeneous and often contradictory. We conducted an umbrella review of (network) meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychosocial interventions vs treatment as usual (TAU)/active interventions(ACTIVE)/MIXED controls. Primary outcome was total symptoms (TS); secondary outcomes were positive/negative/depressive symptoms (PS/NS/DS), cognition, functioning, relapse, hospitalization, quality of life (QoL), treatment discontinuation. Standardized mean difference (SMD)/odds ratio (OR)/risk ratio (RR) vs TAU/ACTIVE/MIXED were summarized at end-of-treatment (EoT)/follow-up (FU). Quality was rated as high/medium/low (AMSTAR-PLUS). Eighty-three meta-analyses were included (RCTs = 1246; n = 84,925). Against TAU, regarding TS, Early Intervention Services (EIS) were superior EoT/FU in EP (SMD = -0.32/-0.21), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in schizophrenia EoT/FU (SMD = -0.38/-0.19). Regarding secondary outcomes, in EP, EIS were superior for all outcomes EoT except cognition, and at FU for PS/NS/QoL, specific family interventions (FI-s) prevented relapse EoT; in schizophrenia, superiority emerged EoT for CBT for PS/NS/relapse/functioning/QoL; psychoeducation (EDU)/any FI for relapse; cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for cognition/functioning; and hallucination-focused integrative treatment for PS. Against ACTIVE, in EP, mixed family interventions (FI-m) were superior at FU regarding TS (SMD = -0.61) and for functioning/relapse among secondary outcomes. In schizophrenia, regarding TS, mindfulness and social skills training (SST) were superior EoT, CBT at FU; regarding secondary outcomes superiority emerged at EoT for computerized cognitive drill-and-practice training for PS/DS, CRT for cognition/functioning, EDU for relapse, individual placement and support (IPS) for employment; and at FU CBT for PS/NS. Against MIXED, in schizophrenia, CRT/EDU were superior for TS EoT (d = -0.14/SMD = -0.33), CRT regarding secondary outcomes EoT for DS/social functioning, both EoT/FU for NS/cognition/global functioning; compensatory cognitive interventions for PS/functioning EoT/FU and NS EoT; CBT for PS at FU, and EDU/SST for relapse EoT. In conclusion, mental health services should consider prioritizing EIS/any FI in EP and CBT/CRT/any FI/IPS for schizophrenia, but other interventions may be helpful for specific outcomes.

Efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions in schizophrenia: systematic overview and quality appraisal of the meta-analytic evidence

Fusar-Poli, Paolo;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Psychosocial interventions are recommended in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis/early psychosis (EP). Nevertheless, literature is heterogeneous and often contradictory. We conducted an umbrella review of (network) meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing psychosocial interventions vs treatment as usual (TAU)/active interventions(ACTIVE)/MIXED controls. Primary outcome was total symptoms (TS); secondary outcomes were positive/negative/depressive symptoms (PS/NS/DS), cognition, functioning, relapse, hospitalization, quality of life (QoL), treatment discontinuation. Standardized mean difference (SMD)/odds ratio (OR)/risk ratio (RR) vs TAU/ACTIVE/MIXED were summarized at end-of-treatment (EoT)/follow-up (FU). Quality was rated as high/medium/low (AMSTAR-PLUS). Eighty-three meta-analyses were included (RCTs = 1246; n = 84,925). Against TAU, regarding TS, Early Intervention Services (EIS) were superior EoT/FU in EP (SMD = -0.32/-0.21), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in schizophrenia EoT/FU (SMD = -0.38/-0.19). Regarding secondary outcomes, in EP, EIS were superior for all outcomes EoT except cognition, and at FU for PS/NS/QoL, specific family interventions (FI-s) prevented relapse EoT; in schizophrenia, superiority emerged EoT for CBT for PS/NS/relapse/functioning/QoL; psychoeducation (EDU)/any FI for relapse; cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for cognition/functioning; and hallucination-focused integrative treatment for PS. Against ACTIVE, in EP, mixed family interventions (FI-m) were superior at FU regarding TS (SMD = -0.61) and for functioning/relapse among secondary outcomes. In schizophrenia, regarding TS, mindfulness and social skills training (SST) were superior EoT, CBT at FU; regarding secondary outcomes superiority emerged at EoT for computerized cognitive drill-and-practice training for PS/DS, CRT for cognition/functioning, EDU for relapse, individual placement and support (IPS) for employment; and at FU CBT for PS/NS. Against MIXED, in schizophrenia, CRT/EDU were superior for TS EoT (d = -0.14/SMD = -0.33), CRT regarding secondary outcomes EoT for DS/social functioning, both EoT/FU for NS/cognition/global functioning; compensatory cognitive interventions for PS/functioning EoT/FU and NS EoT; CBT for PS at FU, and EDU/SST for relapse EoT. In conclusion, mental health services should consider prioritizing EIS/any FI in EP and CBT/CRT/any FI/IPS for schizophrenia, but other interventions may be helpful for specific outcomes.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1461647
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 2
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 31
social impact