We previously demonstrated the existence of a balance among steroid hormones, i.e. glucocorticoids and androgens, in RACK1 (receptor for activated C kinase 1) expression and innate immunity activation, which may offer the opportunity to use RACK1 expression as marker to evaluate immunotoxicity of hormone-active substances. Because of the existence of close interconnections between the different steroid hormone receptors with overlapping ligand specificities and signaling pathways, in this study, we wanted to investigate a possible effect of estrogenic active compounds, namely 17β-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and zearalenone, on RACK-1 expression and innate immune responses using THP-1 cells as experimental model. All compounds increased RACK1 transcriptional activity as evaluated by reporter luciferase activity, mRNA expression as assessed by real time-PCR and protein expression by western blot analysis, which paralleled an increase in LPS-induced IL-8, TNF-α production, and CD86 expression, which we previously demonstrated to be dependent on RACK1/PKCβ activation. As the induction of RACK1 expression can be blocked by the antagonist G15, induced by the agonist G1 and by the non-cell permeable 17β-estradiol conjugated with BSA, a role of GPER (previously named GPR30) activation in estrogen-induced RACK1 expression could be demonstrated. In addition, a role of androgen receptor (AR) in RACK1 transcription was also demonstrated by the ability of flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, to completely prevent diethylstilbestrol-induced RACK1 transcriptional activity and protein expression. Altogether, our data suggest that RACK1 may represent an interesting target of steroid-active compounds, and its evaluation may offer the opportunity to screen the immunotoxic potential of hormone-active substances.

Effect of estrogen-active compounds on the expression of RACK1 and immunological implications

Buoso, Erica;Masi, Mirco;Racchi, Marco;
2020-01-01

Abstract

We previously demonstrated the existence of a balance among steroid hormones, i.e. glucocorticoids and androgens, in RACK1 (receptor for activated C kinase 1) expression and innate immunity activation, which may offer the opportunity to use RACK1 expression as marker to evaluate immunotoxicity of hormone-active substances. Because of the existence of close interconnections between the different steroid hormone receptors with overlapping ligand specificities and signaling pathways, in this study, we wanted to investigate a possible effect of estrogenic active compounds, namely 17β-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and zearalenone, on RACK-1 expression and innate immune responses using THP-1 cells as experimental model. All compounds increased RACK1 transcriptional activity as evaluated by reporter luciferase activity, mRNA expression as assessed by real time-PCR and protein expression by western blot analysis, which paralleled an increase in LPS-induced IL-8, TNF-α production, and CD86 expression, which we previously demonstrated to be dependent on RACK1/PKCβ activation. As the induction of RACK1 expression can be blocked by the antagonist G15, induced by the agonist G1 and by the non-cell permeable 17β-estradiol conjugated with BSA, a role of GPER (previously named GPR30) activation in estrogen-induced RACK1 expression could be demonstrated. In addition, a role of androgen receptor (AR) in RACK1 transcription was also demonstrated by the ability of flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, to completely prevent diethylstilbestrol-induced RACK1 transcriptional activity and protein expression. Altogether, our data suggest that RACK1 may represent an interesting target of steroid-active compounds, and its evaluation may offer the opportunity to screen the immunotoxic potential of hormone-active substances.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1461886
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