The cellular uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) represents a critical step in nanomedicine and a crucial point for understanding the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems. No specific mechanism of uptake has been identified so far, as the NPs are generally incorporated by the cells through one of the few well-known endocytotic mechanisms. Here, an alternative internalization route mediated by microvilli adhesion is demonstrated. This microvillus-mediated adhesion (MMA) has been observed using ceria and magnetite NPs with a dimension of <40 nm functionalized with polyacrylic acid but not using NPs with a neutral or positive functionalization. Such an adhesion was not cell specific, as it was demonstrated in three different cell lines. MMA was also reduced by modifications of the microvillus lipid rafts, obtained by depleting cholesterol and altering synthesis of sphingolipids. We found a direct relationship between MAA, cell cycle, and density of microvilli. The evidence suggests that MMA differs from the commonly described uptake mechanisms and might represent an interesting alternative approach for selective NP delivery.

Microvilli Adhesion: An Alternative Route for Nanoparticle Cell Internalization

Sommi, Patrizia
;
Vitali, Agostina;Coniglio, Stefania;Callegari, Daniele;Barbieri, Sofia;Vigani, Barbara;Ferrari, Franca;Anselmi-Tamburini, Umberto
2021-01-01

Abstract

The cellular uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) represents a critical step in nanomedicine and a crucial point for understanding the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems. No specific mechanism of uptake has been identified so far, as the NPs are generally incorporated by the cells through one of the few well-known endocytotic mechanisms. Here, an alternative internalization route mediated by microvilli adhesion is demonstrated. This microvillus-mediated adhesion (MMA) has been observed using ceria and magnetite NPs with a dimension of <40 nm functionalized with polyacrylic acid but not using NPs with a neutral or positive functionalization. Such an adhesion was not cell specific, as it was demonstrated in three different cell lines. MMA was also reduced by modifications of the microvillus lipid rafts, obtained by depleting cholesterol and altering synthesis of sphingolipids. We found a direct relationship between MAA, cell cycle, and density of microvilli. The evidence suggests that MMA differs from the commonly described uptake mechanisms and might represent an interesting alternative approach for selective NP delivery.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1463745
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