Systemic amyloidoses are characterized by the unrelenting deposition of autologous proteins as highly ordered fibrils in target organs. The ensuing, potentially fatal organ dysfunction is the result of the combined damage caused by the proteotoxic effect of prefibrillar species and by the cytotoxicity and the structural alterations produced by the amyloid fibrils. Current therapy is focused on eliminating the amyloid protein, thus extinguishing the amyloid cascade at its origin. While this approach may end the cell damage caused by prefibrillar aggregates and prevent further amyloid accumulation, the noxious effects of the amyloid fibrils persist and may hamper the recovery of organ function, which is the ultimate goal of therapy as it is necessary to improve the quality of life and extend survival. Preclinical studies indicate that the clearance of amyloid deposits can be accelerated by specific antibodies targeting amyloid fibrils that activate complement-mediated macrophages and giant cell phagocytosis, possibly promoting the recovery of organ function. Measuring the therapeutic effect of anti-amyloid agents is still a matter of research. In recent years, several monoclonal antibodies targeting amyloid deposits have been tested in clinical trials with mixed outcomes. Recent encouraging results from phase I/II trials, new anti-amyloid agents, and new antibody engineering offer hope that effective amyloid removal will be accomplished in the near future, accelerating organ recovery and improving quality of life and survival.

Targeting Amyloid Fibrils by Passive Immunotherapy in Systemic Amyloidosis

Nuvolone, Mario;Nevone, Alice;Merlini, Giampaolo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Systemic amyloidoses are characterized by the unrelenting deposition of autologous proteins as highly ordered fibrils in target organs. The ensuing, potentially fatal organ dysfunction is the result of the combined damage caused by the proteotoxic effect of prefibrillar species and by the cytotoxicity and the structural alterations produced by the amyloid fibrils. Current therapy is focused on eliminating the amyloid protein, thus extinguishing the amyloid cascade at its origin. While this approach may end the cell damage caused by prefibrillar aggregates and prevent further amyloid accumulation, the noxious effects of the amyloid fibrils persist and may hamper the recovery of organ function, which is the ultimate goal of therapy as it is necessary to improve the quality of life and extend survival. Preclinical studies indicate that the clearance of amyloid deposits can be accelerated by specific antibodies targeting amyloid fibrils that activate complement-mediated macrophages and giant cell phagocytosis, possibly promoting the recovery of organ function. Measuring the therapeutic effect of anti-amyloid agents is still a matter of research. In recent years, several monoclonal antibodies targeting amyloid deposits have been tested in clinical trials with mixed outcomes. Recent encouraging results from phase I/II trials, new anti-amyloid agents, and new antibody engineering offer hope that effective amyloid removal will be accomplished in the near future, accelerating organ recovery and improving quality of life and survival.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1466644
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