The use of indwelling medical devices has constantly increased in recent years and has revolutionized the quality of life of patients affected by different diseases. However, despite the improvement of hygiene conditions in hospitals, implant-associated infections remain a common and serious complication in prosthetic surgery, mainly in the orthopedic field, where infection often leads to implant failure. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of biomaterial-centered infection. Upon binding to the medical devices, these bacteria proliferate and develop dense communities encased in a protective matrix called biofilm. Biofilm formation has been proposed as occurring in several stages—(1) attachment; (2) proliferation; (3) dispersal—and involves a variety of host and staphylococcal proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous factors. Moreover, biofilm formation is strictly regulated by several control systems. Biofilms enable staphylococci to avoid antimicrobial activity and host immune response and are a source of persistent bacteremia as well as of localized tissue destruction. While considerable information is available on staphylococcal biofilm formation on medical implants and important results have been achieved on the treatment of biofilms, preclinical and clinical applications need to be further investigated. Thus, the purpose of this review is to gather current studies about the mechanism of infection of indwelling medical devices by S. aureus with a special focus on the biochemical factors involved in biofilm formation and regulation. We also provide a summary of the current therapeutic strategies to combat biomaterial-associated infections and highlight the need to further explore biofilm physiology and conduct research for innovative anti-biofilm approaches.

Colonization and Infection of Indwelling Medical Devices by Staphylococcus aureus with an Emphasis on Orthopedic Implants

Giampiero Pietrocola;Pietro Speziale
2022-01-01

Abstract

The use of indwelling medical devices has constantly increased in recent years and has revolutionized the quality of life of patients affected by different diseases. However, despite the improvement of hygiene conditions in hospitals, implant-associated infections remain a common and serious complication in prosthetic surgery, mainly in the orthopedic field, where infection often leads to implant failure. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of biomaterial-centered infection. Upon binding to the medical devices, these bacteria proliferate and develop dense communities encased in a protective matrix called biofilm. Biofilm formation has been proposed as occurring in several stages—(1) attachment; (2) proliferation; (3) dispersal—and involves a variety of host and staphylococcal proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous factors. Moreover, biofilm formation is strictly regulated by several control systems. Biofilms enable staphylococci to avoid antimicrobial activity and host immune response and are a source of persistent bacteremia as well as of localized tissue destruction. While considerable information is available on staphylococcal biofilm formation on medical implants and important results have been achieved on the treatment of biofilms, preclinical and clinical applications need to be further investigated. Thus, the purpose of this review is to gather current studies about the mechanism of infection of indwelling medical devices by S. aureus with a special focus on the biochemical factors involved in biofilm formation and regulation. We also provide a summary of the current therapeutic strategies to combat biomaterial-associated infections and highlight the need to further explore biofilm physiology and conduct research for innovative anti-biofilm approaches.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1468434
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