Regenerative dentistry represents a therapeutic modern approach involving biomaterials and biologics such as mesenchymal stem cells. The role of regenerative dentistry is promising in all branches of dentistry, especially in periodontology and implantology for the treatment of bony defects around teeth and implants, respectively. Due to the number of different materials that can be used for this purpose, the aim of the present review is to evidence the regenerative properties of different materials both in periodontitis and peri-implantitis as well as to compare their efficacy. Clinical trials, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies have been considered in this review. The outcome assessed is represented by the regenerative properties of bone grafts, barrier membranes, and biological materials in the treatment of intrabony and furcation defects, peri-implantitis sites, alveolar ridge preservation, and implant site development. Based on the studies included, it can be stated that in the last years regenerative materials in periodontal and peri-implant defects treatments have shown excellent results, thus providing valuable support to surgical therapy. To achieve optimal and predictable results, clinicians should always consider factors like occlusal load control, prevention of microbial contamination, and wound dehiscence. Further evidence is required about the use of enamel matrix derivative in alveolar ridge preservation, as well as of stem cells and bone morphogenetic proteins-2 in furcation defects and peri-implantitis sites. Considering the high amount of research being conducted in this field, further evidence is expected to be obtained soon.
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