: The fine-tuning of the physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles has facilitated the rapid development of multifunctional gold-based nanomaterials with diagnostic, therapeutic, and therapeutic applications. Work on gold nanoparticles is increasingly focusing on their cancer application. This review provides a summary of the main biological effects exerted by gold nanoparticles on cancer cells and highlights some critical factors involved in the interaction process (protein corona, tumor microenvironment, surface functionalization). The review also contains a brief discussion of the application of gold nanoparticles in target discovery.
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