Biopsy is a surgical procedure performed to collect a portion of tissue or organ for diagnostic studies. The aim of the present manuscript is to describe state-of-the-art major and minor salivary gland biopsy techniques and assess the indications and complications of other salivary gland biopsy techniques. A search was performed using the following MeSH terms: biopsy, fine-needle biopsies, image-guided biopsies, frozen sections, and salivary glands disease. A current overview of major and minor salivary glands biopsy techniques was provided. In the oncological field, a comparison was made between the most widely used biopsy method, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB), and an alternative method, ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-guided CNB), highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each. Finally, intra-operative frozen sections (IOFSs) were presented as an additional intraoperative diagnostic method. Minor salivary gland biopsy (MSGB) is the simplest diagnostic method used by clinicians in the diagnosis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In neoplastic lesions, US-FNAB represents the most performed method; however, due to its low diagnostic accuracy for non-neoplastic specimens, US-guided CNB has been introduced as an alternative method.
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