The intestinal epithelium acts as a physical barrier that separates the intestinal microbiota from the host and is critical for preserving intestinal homeostasis. The barrier is formed by tightly linked intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) (i.e. enterocytes, goblet cells, neuroendocrine cells, tuft cells, Paneth cells, and M cells), which constantly self-renew and shed. IECs also communicate with microbiota, coordinate innate and adaptive effector cell functions. In this review, we summarize the signaling pathways contributing to intestinal cell fates and homeostasis functions. We focus especially on intestinal stem cell proliferation, cell junction formation, remodelling, hypoxia, the impact of intestinal microbiota, the immune system, inflammation, and metabolism. Recognizing the critical role of KRAS mutants in colorectal cancer, we highlight the connections of KRAS signaling pathways in coordinating these functions. Furthermore, we review the impact of KRAS colorectal cancer mutants on pathway rewiring associated with disruption and dysfunction of the normal intestinal homeostasis. Given that KRAS is still considered undruggable and the development of treatments that directly target KRAS are unlikely, we discuss the suitability of targeting pathways downstream of KRAS as well as alterations of cell extrinsic/microenvironmental factors as possible targets for modulating signaling pathways in colorectal cancer.

Signaling pathways in intestinal homeostasis and colorectal cancer: KRAS at centre stage

Kiel, Christina
2021-01-01

Abstract

The intestinal epithelium acts as a physical barrier that separates the intestinal microbiota from the host and is critical for preserving intestinal homeostasis. The barrier is formed by tightly linked intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) (i.e. enterocytes, goblet cells, neuroendocrine cells, tuft cells, Paneth cells, and M cells), which constantly self-renew and shed. IECs also communicate with microbiota, coordinate innate and adaptive effector cell functions. In this review, we summarize the signaling pathways contributing to intestinal cell fates and homeostasis functions. We focus especially on intestinal stem cell proliferation, cell junction formation, remodelling, hypoxia, the impact of intestinal microbiota, the immune system, inflammation, and metabolism. Recognizing the critical role of KRAS mutants in colorectal cancer, we highlight the connections of KRAS signaling pathways in coordinating these functions. Furthermore, we review the impact of KRAS colorectal cancer mutants on pathway rewiring associated with disruption and dysfunction of the normal intestinal homeostasis. Given that KRAS is still considered undruggable and the development of treatments that directly target KRAS are unlikely, we discuss the suitability of targeting pathways downstream of KRAS as well as alterations of cell extrinsic/microenvironmental factors as possible targets for modulating signaling pathways in colorectal cancer.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1469150
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