: Childhood obesity is characterized by an increased risk of several metabolic derangements including insulin resistance (IR). The strongest recommendations to prevent obesity and related complications are a balanced and adequate diet and practicing physical activity from early childhood. In this review, we propose to present the effects of healthy lifestyle strategies, including physical exercise and dietary approaches, on the management of IR and related metabolic derangements. All types of exercise (aerobic, resistance and combined training) effectively reduce IR in pediatric patients with obesity; it seems that aerobic and combined training stimulate greater improvements in IR compared to resistance training. Balanced normocaloric or hypocaloric dietary approaches are also valid strategies to address IR; it is not possible to assess the long-term impact of varying macronutrients on cardiometabolic risk. The glycemic index/load evaluation is a useful dietary approach to glucose metabolism control. Similarly, they should adopt the principle of the Mediterranean diet. Randomized studies with longer monitoring are needed to define the benefits of nutritional supplementation on IR. Considering that healthy style acquisition could track to later ages, programs of healthy lifestyle starting with children offer a better preventive strategy to preserve metabolic control and children's health.

The Effect of Healthy Lifestyle Strategies on the Management of Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents with Obesity: A Narrative Review

VALERIA CALCATERRA;matteo vandoni;Clarissa Berardo;Alessandro Gatti;Cristina Cereda;
2022-01-01

Abstract

: Childhood obesity is characterized by an increased risk of several metabolic derangements including insulin resistance (IR). The strongest recommendations to prevent obesity and related complications are a balanced and adequate diet and practicing physical activity from early childhood. In this review, we propose to present the effects of healthy lifestyle strategies, including physical exercise and dietary approaches, on the management of IR and related metabolic derangements. All types of exercise (aerobic, resistance and combined training) effectively reduce IR in pediatric patients with obesity; it seems that aerobic and combined training stimulate greater improvements in IR compared to resistance training. Balanced normocaloric or hypocaloric dietary approaches are also valid strategies to address IR; it is not possible to assess the long-term impact of varying macronutrients on cardiometabolic risk. The glycemic index/load evaluation is a useful dietary approach to glucose metabolism control. Similarly, they should adopt the principle of the Mediterranean diet. Randomized studies with longer monitoring are needed to define the benefits of nutritional supplementation on IR. Considering that healthy style acquisition could track to later ages, programs of healthy lifestyle starting with children offer a better preventive strategy to preserve metabolic control and children's health.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1469278
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