Over the past few years, perovskite solar cells have arisen as a technology to potentially side with mainstream silicon photovoltaics (PVs) to help drive the transition towards renewable sources of energy. The coupling of perovskites with silicon in a tandem configuration may accelerate this development due to the remarkably high power conversion efficiencies possible with such devices. However, most of the perovskite/silicon tandem achievements so far have been confined to the lab environment, with only a few reported tests under outdoor conditions, using packaged devices. Nevertheless, one of the major challenges for perovskite/silicon tandem technologies, in addition to scale-up, lies in the cell-to-module (CTM) translation, which for the perovskite/silicon tandem concept is complicated by perovskite-imposed constrains such as a low-temperature resilience, imposing challenges regarding tabbing and lamination, as well as a high sensitivity to moisture ingress, mandating the search for adequate encapsulation materials and methods. Herein, these challenges are described and assessed in depth and a perspective on future directions toward module design, tailored for perovskite/silicon tandem PVs is given, combining high performance with excellent durability. The discussion also holds relevance for all-perovskite and other emerging PV technologies seeking market entry.
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