OBJECTIVES: To analyse humoral and cellular immune response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in patients with GCA. METHODS: Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of GCA receiving two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were assessed at baseline and 3 weeks from the second vaccine dose. Healthy subjects (n = 51) were included as controls (HC). Humoral response was assessed with Spike-specific IgG antibody response (S-IgG) and neutralizing antibodies (NtAb). Specific T cell response was assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot). RESULTS: Of 56 included patients with GCA, 44 were eligible after exclusion of previous evidence of COVID-19 and incomplete follow-up. A significant proportion of patients with GCA (91%) demonstrated antibody (S-IgG) response, but this was significantly lower than HCs (100%); P < 0.0001. Neutralizing activity was not detected in 16% of patients with GCA. Antibody titres (S-IgG and NtAb) were significantly lower compared with HCs. Humoral response (S-IgG and NtAb) was significantly hampered by treatment with MTX. Cellular response was lacking in 30% of patients with GCA (vs 0% in HCs; P < 0.0001). Cellular response was significantly influenced by the levels of baseline peripheral T-lymphocytes and by glucocorticoid treatment. Treatment with tocilizumab did not affect any level of the immune response elicited by vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with GCA apparently achieve a robust antibody seroconversion, there is a significant impairment of the neutralizing activity. MTX significantly reduced all levels of the humoral response. Up to one-third of patients do not develop a cellular immune protection in response to COVID-19 vaccination.

Immunosuppressive treatments selectively affect the humoral and cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated patients with vasculitis

Delvino P.;Comolli G.;Sammartino J. C.;Bozzalla Cassione E.;Cassaniti I.;Baldanti F.;Montecucco C.
2023-01-01

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To analyse humoral and cellular immune response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in patients with GCA. METHODS: Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of GCA receiving two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were assessed at baseline and 3 weeks from the second vaccine dose. Healthy subjects (n = 51) were included as controls (HC). Humoral response was assessed with Spike-specific IgG antibody response (S-IgG) and neutralizing antibodies (NtAb). Specific T cell response was assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot). RESULTS: Of 56 included patients with GCA, 44 were eligible after exclusion of previous evidence of COVID-19 and incomplete follow-up. A significant proportion of patients with GCA (91%) demonstrated antibody (S-IgG) response, but this was significantly lower than HCs (100%); P < 0.0001. Neutralizing activity was not detected in 16% of patients with GCA. Antibody titres (S-IgG and NtAb) were significantly lower compared with HCs. Humoral response (S-IgG and NtAb) was significantly hampered by treatment with MTX. Cellular response was lacking in 30% of patients with GCA (vs 0% in HCs; P < 0.0001). Cellular response was significantly influenced by the levels of baseline peripheral T-lymphocytes and by glucocorticoid treatment. Treatment with tocilizumab did not affect any level of the immune response elicited by vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with GCA apparently achieve a robust antibody seroconversion, there is a significant impairment of the neutralizing activity. MTX significantly reduced all levels of the humoral response. Up to one-third of patients do not develop a cellular immune protection in response to COVID-19 vaccination.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1473771
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