A key component for landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) is constituted by thresholds providing the conditions above which a landslide can be triggered. Traditionally, thresholds based on rainfall characteristics have been proposed, but recently, the hydrometeorological approach, combining rainfall with soil moisture or catchment storage information, is becoming widespread. Most of the hydrometeorological thresholds proposed in the literature use the soil moisture from a single layer (i.e., depth or depth range). On the other hand, multi-layered soil moisture information can be measured or can be available from reanalysis projects as well as from hydrological models. Approaches using this multi-layered information are lacking, perhaps because of the need to keep the thresholds simple and two-dimensional. In this paper, we propose principal component analysis (PCA) as an approach for deriving two-dimensional hydrometeorological thresholds that use multi-layered soil moisture information. To perform a more objective assessment we also propose a piecewise linear equation for the identification of the threshold's shape, which is more flexible than traditional choices (e.g., power law or bilinear). Comparison of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) (true skill statistic, TSS) of thresholds based on single- and multi-layered soil moisture information also provides a novel tool for identifying the significance of multi-layered information on landslide triggering in a given region. Results for Sicily island, considering the ERA5-Land reanalysis soil moisture data (available at four different depth layers), corroborate the advantages of the hydrometeorological approach gained in spite of the coarse spatial resolution and the limited accuracy of reanalysis data. Specifically, the TSS of traditional precipitation intensity-duration thresholds is equal to 0.5, while those of the proposed hydrometeorological thresholds is significantly higher (TSS=0.71). For the analyzed region, however, multi-layered information seems not to be relevant, as performances in terms of TSS are similar to those obtained with single-layer soil moisture at the upper depths, namely 0-7 and 7-28 cm, which can imply that in Sicily landslide phenomena are mainly influenced by soil moisture in most shallow soil layers.

Using principal component analysis to incorporate multi-layer soil moistureinformation in hydrometeorological thresholds for landslide prediction: aninvestigation based on ERA5-Land reanalysis data

Palazzolo, N
Methodology
;
Creaco, E
Conceptualization
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

A key component for landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) is constituted by thresholds providing the conditions above which a landslide can be triggered. Traditionally, thresholds based on rainfall characteristics have been proposed, but recently, the hydrometeorological approach, combining rainfall with soil moisture or catchment storage information, is becoming widespread. Most of the hydrometeorological thresholds proposed in the literature use the soil moisture from a single layer (i.e., depth or depth range). On the other hand, multi-layered soil moisture information can be measured or can be available from reanalysis projects as well as from hydrological models. Approaches using this multi-layered information are lacking, perhaps because of the need to keep the thresholds simple and two-dimensional. In this paper, we propose principal component analysis (PCA) as an approach for deriving two-dimensional hydrometeorological thresholds that use multi-layered soil moisture information. To perform a more objective assessment we also propose a piecewise linear equation for the identification of the threshold's shape, which is more flexible than traditional choices (e.g., power law or bilinear). Comparison of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) (true skill statistic, TSS) of thresholds based on single- and multi-layered soil moisture information also provides a novel tool for identifying the significance of multi-layered information on landslide triggering in a given region. Results for Sicily island, considering the ERA5-Land reanalysis soil moisture data (available at four different depth layers), corroborate the advantages of the hydrometeorological approach gained in spite of the coarse spatial resolution and the limited accuracy of reanalysis data. Specifically, the TSS of traditional precipitation intensity-duration thresholds is equal to 0.5, while those of the proposed hydrometeorological thresholds is significantly higher (TSS=0.71). For the analyzed region, however, multi-layered information seems not to be relevant, as performances in terms of TSS are similar to those obtained with single-layer soil moisture at the upper depths, namely 0-7 and 7-28 cm, which can imply that in Sicily landslide phenomena are mainly influenced by soil moisture in most shallow soil layers.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1474176
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