: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic challenged health systems worldwide, thus advocating for practical, quick and highly trustworthy diagnostic instruments to help medical personnel. It features a long incubation period and a high contagion rate, causing bilateral multi-focal interstitial pneumonia, generally growing into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), causing hundreds of thousands of casualties worldwide. Guidelines for first-line diagnosis of pneumonia suggest Chest X-rays (CXR) for patients exhibiting symptoms. Potential alternatives include Computed Tomography (CT) scans and Lung UltraSound (LUS). Deep learning (DL) has been helpful in diagnosis using CT scans, LUS, and CXR, whereby the former commonly yields more precise results. CXR and CT scans present several drawbacks, including high costs. Radiation-free LUS imaging requires high expertise, and physicians thus underutilise it. LUS demonstrated a strong correlation with CT scans and reliability in pneumonia detection, even in the early stages. Here, we present an LUS video-classification approach based on contemporary DL strategies in close collaboration with Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo's Emergency Department (ED) of Pavia. This research addressed SARS-CoV-2 patterns detection, ranked according to three severity scales by operating a trustworthy dataset comprising ultrasounds from linear and convex probes in 5400 clips from 450 hospitalised subjects. The main contributions of this study are related to the adoption of a standardised severity ranking scale to evaluate pneumonia. This evaluation relies on video summarisation through key-frame selection algorithms. Then, we designed and developed a video-classification architecture which emerged as the most promising. In contrast, the literature primarily concentrates on frame-pattern recognition. By using advanced techniques such as transfer learning and data augmentation, we were able to achieve an F1-Score of over 89% across all classes.

Perceptive SARS-CoV-2 End-To-End Ultrasound Video Classification through X3D and Key-Frames Selection

Gazzoni, Marco;La Salvia, Marco;Torti, Emanuele
;
Secco, Gianmarco;Perlini, Stefano;Leporati, Francesco
2023-01-01

Abstract

: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic challenged health systems worldwide, thus advocating for practical, quick and highly trustworthy diagnostic instruments to help medical personnel. It features a long incubation period and a high contagion rate, causing bilateral multi-focal interstitial pneumonia, generally growing into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), causing hundreds of thousands of casualties worldwide. Guidelines for first-line diagnosis of pneumonia suggest Chest X-rays (CXR) for patients exhibiting symptoms. Potential alternatives include Computed Tomography (CT) scans and Lung UltraSound (LUS). Deep learning (DL) has been helpful in diagnosis using CT scans, LUS, and CXR, whereby the former commonly yields more precise results. CXR and CT scans present several drawbacks, including high costs. Radiation-free LUS imaging requires high expertise, and physicians thus underutilise it. LUS demonstrated a strong correlation with CT scans and reliability in pneumonia detection, even in the early stages. Here, we present an LUS video-classification approach based on contemporary DL strategies in close collaboration with Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo's Emergency Department (ED) of Pavia. This research addressed SARS-CoV-2 patterns detection, ranked according to three severity scales by operating a trustworthy dataset comprising ultrasounds from linear and convex probes in 5400 clips from 450 hospitalised subjects. The main contributions of this study are related to the adoption of a standardised severity ranking scale to evaluate pneumonia. This evaluation relies on video summarisation through key-frame selection algorithms. Then, we designed and developed a video-classification architecture which emerged as the most promising. In contrast, the literature primarily concentrates on frame-pattern recognition. By using advanced techniques such as transfer learning and data augmentation, we were able to achieve an F1-Score of over 89% across all classes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1476014
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