The human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause different cancers in both men and women. The virus interferes with functions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus in the anogenital area, breast, and head and neck cancer due to the local lesions. The tumors lead to death if not treated as a result of distant metastasis to internal organs and brain. Moreover, HPV attenuates the immune system during chronic infection and releases viral antigens into the tumor microenvironment. The tumors know how difficult is to win the battle with a strong united army of immune cells that are equipped with cytokines and enzymes. They confuse the immune cells with secreting viral antigens. The immune system is equipped with cytokines, a complement system, antibodies, and other secretory proteins to overcome the foreign invaders and viral antigens. However, the majority of the time, tumors win the battle without having all the equipment of the immune cells. Thus, in this review, we describe the recent progression in cellular and humoral immunity studies during the progression of HPV-related cancers. First of all, we describe the role of B, plasmoid cells, and B regulatory cells (Breg) in their functions in the tumor microenvironment. Then, different subtypes of T cells such as T CD8, CD4, T regulatory (Treg) cells were studied in recently published papers. Furthermore, NK cells and their role in tumor progression and prevention were studied. Finally, we indicate the breakthroughs in immunotherapy techniques for HPV-related cancers.
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