The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is widely implanted as temporary mechanical circulatory support for cardiogenic shock (CS). However, its use is declining following the results of the IABP-SHOCK II trial, which failed to show a clinical benefit of the IABP in acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-related CS. Acute-on-chronic heart failure has become an increasingly recognized, distinct cause of CS (HF-CS). The pathophysiology of HF-CS differs from that of ACS-CS because it typically represents the progression from a state of congestion (with relatively preserved cardiac output) to a low-output state with hypoperfusion. The IABP is a volume-displacement pump that promotes forward flow from a high-capacitance reservoir to low-capacitance vessels, improving peripheral perfusion and decreasing left ventricular afterload in the setting of high filling pressures. The IABP can improve ventricular-vascular coupling and, therefore, myocardial energetics. Additionally, many patients with HF-CS are candidates for cardiac replacement therapies (left ventricular assist device or heart transplantation) and, therefore, may benefit froma bridge strategy that stabilizes the hemodynamics and end-organ function in preparation for more durable therapies. Notably, the new United Network for Organ Sharing donor heart allocation system has recently prioritized patients on IABP support.This review describes the role of IABP in the treatment of HF-CS. It also briefly discusses new strategies for vascular access as well as fully implantable versions for longer duration of support.

Intra-aortic Balloon Pump for Acute-on-Chronic Heart Failure Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock

Tavazzi, Guido;Ferrari, Gaetano Maria De;
2022-01-01

Abstract

The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is widely implanted as temporary mechanical circulatory support for cardiogenic shock (CS). However, its use is declining following the results of the IABP-SHOCK II trial, which failed to show a clinical benefit of the IABP in acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-related CS. Acute-on-chronic heart failure has become an increasingly recognized, distinct cause of CS (HF-CS). The pathophysiology of HF-CS differs from that of ACS-CS because it typically represents the progression from a state of congestion (with relatively preserved cardiac output) to a low-output state with hypoperfusion. The IABP is a volume-displacement pump that promotes forward flow from a high-capacitance reservoir to low-capacitance vessels, improving peripheral perfusion and decreasing left ventricular afterload in the setting of high filling pressures. The IABP can improve ventricular-vascular coupling and, therefore, myocardial energetics. Additionally, many patients with HF-CS are candidates for cardiac replacement therapies (left ventricular assist device or heart transplantation) and, therefore, may benefit froma bridge strategy that stabilizes the hemodynamics and end-organ function in preparation for more durable therapies. Notably, the new United Network for Organ Sharing donor heart allocation system has recently prioritized patients on IABP support.This review describes the role of IABP in the treatment of HF-CS. It also briefly discusses new strategies for vascular access as well as fully implantable versions for longer duration of support.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1476904
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