When a quantum system is subject to a thermal gradient it may sustain a steady nonequilibrium heat current by entering into a so-called nonequilibrium steady state (NESS). Here we show that NESS constitute a thermodynamic resource that can be exploited to charge a quantum battery. This adds to the list of recently reported sources available at the nanoscale, such as coherence, entanglement, and quantum measurements. We elucidate this concept by showing analytic and numerical studies of a two-qubit quantum battery that is alternatively charged by an incoherent heat flow and discharged by application of a properly chosen unitary gate. The presence of a NESS for the charging step guarantees steady operation with positive power output. Decreasing the duration of the charging step results in a time-periodic steady state accompanied by increased efficiency and output power. The device is amenable to implementation with different nanotechnology platforms.

Charging a quantum battery via nonequilibrium heat current

Tacchino F.;Gerace D.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

When a quantum system is subject to a thermal gradient it may sustain a steady nonequilibrium heat current by entering into a so-called nonequilibrium steady state (NESS). Here we show that NESS constitute a thermodynamic resource that can be exploited to charge a quantum battery. This adds to the list of recently reported sources available at the nanoscale, such as coherence, entanglement, and quantum measurements. We elucidate this concept by showing analytic and numerical studies of a two-qubit quantum battery that is alternatively charged by an incoherent heat flow and discharged by application of a properly chosen unitary gate. The presence of a NESS for the charging step guarantees steady operation with positive power output. Decreasing the duration of the charging step results in a time-periodic steady state accompanied by increased efficiency and output power. The device is amenable to implementation with different nanotechnology platforms.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1477796
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