Despite having assumed new and ever-changing meanings, human migration is an ancient phenomenon which has characterized the unfolding of human history. Yet, today, a debate has been ignited about the worldwide displacement of people, as- suming serious tones both in public and institutional sectors. What are the reasons for such passion, such fear? Do the data support the protective measures that some governments have launched? Who bears the social costs of migration? Who, con- versely, benefits from the state of alarm that is created? These and many other ques- tions should motivate our critical spirit to pursue a better understanding of a com- plex and multi-faceted phenomenon. One must address both the requests of the mi- grants themselves and also the concerns that, more or less fairly and rationally, assail the citizens of host countries. Furthermore, it seems legitimate to ask what happens in the countries that see so many of their citizens leave to seek their fortune abroad. These citizens are often the most promising potential human resource. Indeed, we could say that truly the best talents have the scarcest probability of returning to the country of origin because they have many opportunities to well establish themselves in the host country. Migration thus assumes a powerful role in the redistribution of opportunities for development and growth across different countries. One can, in fact, come to believe that migration is a process of reproducing inequality across the central and peripheral countries.
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